History of Health Sciences
This graduate program will train students to examine the history of health sciences (medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, alternative healing, and biomedical research) from a variety of critical approaches. Doctoral students will be prepared to undertake a wide variety of professional careers in academia, industry, government, and communications. For those who choose academic research and teaching in the field, this program will lay the foundation for them to create and interpret new knowledge as scholars and to share and disseminate their knowledge of the field as educators. Those who choose other career paths will learn to incorporate historical perspectives into their understanding and practice of their respective fields, as will students enrolled in the master’s program for professionals and medical students who take elective courses in the program. The physical and intellectual location of this history program within one of the nation’s leading medical schools affords the opportunity to advance the historical analysis and understanding of biomedical sciences, clinical practices, and health policies.
History of Health Sciences offers two degree programs. The doctorate program leads to the PhD. Students may also pursue a doctorate in History of Health Sciences jointly with a degree in Medicine, leading to a combined MD-PhD. Candidates for the joint degree must apply separately to the Program in History of Health Sciences and to the School of Medicine . A master’s degree (MA) is offered as well, in certain cases, either full time, or part time to individuals who already hold a doctoral degree in medicine, science, or other professional field (e.g., public health, nursing, pharmacy).
Students enrolled in the PhD program are eligible for financial support administered through the Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine at UCSF. Students may be required to work as teaching assistants or research assistants in return for the payment of fees and stipends. MD-PhD students are also eligible for funding during the doctoral phase of their work toward the joint degree. Students enrolled in the MA program must provide their own funding.
Since the history of health sciences is an interdisciplinary field, students from a wide variety of academic backgrounds in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences are encouraged to apply. Students must have a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university with a minimum cumulative grade point average of 3.0 (on a 4.0 scale) or the equivalent from a non-U.S. institution. Students with master’s degrees are encouraged to apply, but the Program in History of Health Sciences will only award credit for graduate work done at another institution under certain circumstances. Students must also have taken the GRE General Test within the last 5 years.
Students are admitted to the Program in History of Health Sciences biennially (2005, 2007, etc.). By admitting new students only every other year, the Program ensures that the student to faculty ratio remains low, which enables students to work closely with faculty on an individual basis.
The link to the online application for the Fall 2015 cycle is below. Please note that the application cycle will close on February 1, 2015. Please check back here for the link to the application which should be added by September 5, 2014.
UCSF has a proud history of welcoming students with all types of disabilities into the professional schools and the graduate division. We pride ourselves in giving individualized consideration of each student’s abilities, the functional impact of their disability, and program standards in order to devise creative and innovative accommodation solutions to ensure equal access to students with disabilities.
The Graduate Programs in Medical Anthropology and the History of Health Sciences are committed to providing access to graduate students with disabilities and will provide reasonable accommodations as necessary. Applicants with disabilities, who are invited for interviews, will be offered reasonable accommodations if requested.
UCSF does not require that students with disabilities disclose their disability status on the admissions application. Decisions around disability disclosure are personal ones that should be carefully considered. Once students are admitted, they should contact Student Disability Services to begin the Disability Services registration process if they wish to ensure that accommodations and services are in place for the start of their courses.
The minimum residence requirement is two years of full-time study (minimum of two courses per term).
Upon entering the program, the student will be assigned a faculty mentor (from the department’s core faculty) who will serve as the primary advisor during the first two years of coursework and who will guide the student through the successful passage of the general examinations. After the general examinations, the student will choose his/her dissertation advisor, who will work closely with the student to formulate his/her thesis project. After departmental approval of the student’s dissertation prospectus in the third year, two additional faculty members will be added to the student’s dissertation committee, which will be composed as follows: the dissertation advisor, a second consultant (from the History of Health Sciences core or affiliated faculty), and a third reader (from outside the program, usually from Medical Anthropology, or from Berkeley’s History Department, or from another department at UCSF).
Students must complete a minimum of twelve courses (48 credits, excluding professional skills and language courses) during the first two years of study; more courses may be taken, in accordance with the individual student’s schedule and interests. All students must take three required courses: Introduction to History of Health Sciences I, Introduction to History of Health Sciences II, and Research Methods in the first year (12 credits total). During the summer after the first year, students are expected to undertake a research project (designed and begun in the spring Methods course) and to produce a 25-30 page paper based on that original archival research. At least five courses (20 credits) are electives, chosen from offerings at UCSF in history of health sciences, medical anthropology, sociology, and global health sciences, and at Berkeley in the history department; two of these must be graduate seminars at Berkeley (History 275 and History 280) to satisfy the third field requirement (see below). Undergraduate courses at Berkeley may be taken with special permission of the Director of Graduate Studies and the instructor. Two two-term courses (16 credits) will be reading courses taken in the second half of the second year, in preparation for the general examinations in their chosen fields of history of health sciences (see below). Students should take into consideration their proposed fields of study when selecting their elective courses. Students are also strongly encouraged to take additional courses in Professional Skills (UCSF Anthropology 218) and/or Teaching History at the University (Berkeley History 300).
In addition to the formal coursework, students are expected to attend the Berkeley/UCSF colloquia in the history of science, technology, and medicine in both years one and two of the program.
Assessment after the first year
Students are required to maintain a minimum grade point average of 3.0. At the end of the first year, students will receive a written evaluation of their status in the program, based on grades received in coursework, from the Graduate Committee. Students will be judged to be making “excellent progress,” “satisfactory progress,” or “unsatisfactory progress.” Those students who receive an evaluation of “unsatisfactory progress” must appear before the Graduate Committee and be prepared to do remedial work during the summer in order to continue in the program. Students who earn an evaluation of “excellent progress” at the end of the first year may petition for academic credit of up to 16 credits for graduate work in history of medicine or history of science done at another institution
At the end of the second year, students will be examined in three fields of study: two in the history of health sciences and a third in another area of history.
Competence in the third field will be demonstrated by successful completion of two graduate seminars in one of Berkeley’s History Program Fields. Ordinarily, the student will take History 275 and History 280 in the chosen field of study.
The two health sciences fields must be selected from the following list; a student may petition the Graduate Committee for approval of a self-designed field:
- History of American medicine
- History of European medicine
- History of public health
- History of the life sciences
- History of gender and the body
- History of the institutions and disciplines of medicine
- History of alternative healing
- Medical anthropology
To prepare for the examinations in the two fields in history of health sciences, students will take reading courses with professors from the department’s core and affiliated faculty in the second year of the program. These reading courses (one for each field) are taken for two consecutive terms and are designed as individual tutorials.
The examinations in each field will consist of a three-hour written examination and a half-hour oral examination. The written examinations will be graded (pass/fail) by the faculty member who directed the student’s reading course in that field and by one other faculty member. Both instructors who directed the student’s reading courses will be present at the oral examinations, along with a third faculty member; these three individuals make up the evaluating committee. The exams are intended to assess the candidate’s mastery of the factual information, theoretical concepts, and historiographical approaches in each field. Upon the completion of the written and oral examinations, the evaluating committee will recommend:
- that the student passed the general examination and should be continued in the program, or
- that the student failed the examination, but should be re-examined within three months, or
- that the student failed the examination and should be discontinued without re-examination.
Foreign language requirement
Students must demonstrate reading knowledge of a foreign language other than English. Competence must be demonstrated by passing an examination, consisting of translating two pages of text from the foreign language into English in a one-hour time period (use of dictionaries is allowed). This examination must be taken before the student takes the general examinations. Students without adequate language preparation may enroll in a language course at Berkeley (e.g., French for Reading Knowledge).
The dissertation is the heart of the doctoral program. The student is expected to undertake extensive independent research to advance an original contribution or a new interpretation of a chosen topic in the history of health sciences. In year three, the student will compose a written dissertation prospectus describing the specific aims and conceptual framework of the proposed research project, including a discussion of the major sources to be used and a timetable for completion. The student is expected to meet on a monthly basis with the dissertation advisor to discuss progress toward completion of the dissertation. Please refer to the “Advising” section above for information on the selection of a thesis advisor and the composition of the thesis committee. The dissertation should be completed by the end of the fifth year; students with unusual circumstances may petition for one additional year, to submit the dissertation at the end of the sixth year.
MD/PhD in History of Health Sciences
The Program in History of Health Sciences (located in the Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine) offers medical students the opportunity to earn a PhD in History of Health Sciences in addition to the MD degree.
If accepted by both the School of Medicine and the History Program, students will receive full payment of all tuition and fees plus an annual stipend for living expenses for the four years of graduate study. This program does not cover the costs of medical school, but students are encouraged to apply for financial aid and other grants and scholarships.
MD/PhD students will complete the first two or three years of the medical school curriculum, then they will join the PhD program in History of Health Sciences. The PhD program begins with two years of coursework in preparation for the qualifying exams. After the qualifying exams, students work independently on researching and writing their dissertations. When the dissertation is completed, students return to the medical school to complete the MD curriculum.
Students should apply separately to the two programs, alerting each to their interest in the combined MD/PhD. Students need not submit GRE scores; MCAT scores are sufficient for both programs. The application committees of both the MD and PhD programs will work together to process these applications.
Dr. Brian Dolan, Director of Graduate Studies
The policy regarding satisfactory academic progress in the History of Health Sciences PhD program is as follows:
Productivity is expected of students as they progress through the program. Each year, the faculty meets to discuss individual student progress, course, and examination performance. Students who fail to meet the standard of performance deemed necessary for progression will be asked to withdraw from the program.
Academic progress is marked by the timely and successful completion of all courses with grades of B or better in all required courses and a cumulative grade average grade of 3.0 or above in all coursework, passing all qualifying examinations, successful completion of dissertation, and presentation based on the dissertation.
More specifics on time to degree and prequalifying and qualifying exams can be found in the History of Health Sciences Student Handbook.
First Year Students
First year students meet with the director of the program at least once per quarter. Student progress is assessed at the end of the year on the basis of course grades, plus additional comments from course instructors and advisors about students who might be struggling.
Second and Third Year Students
Second and third students are evaluated on the basis of their progress toward and then successful completion of the qualifying exam (including meeting pre-exam requirements, having the statements and proposals approved, and passing the qualifying exam). Students must meet with their committee chair in person at least once a quarter and keep advisors informed of their progress. Each advisor must review/approve each student’s plan of study annually and communicate this to the program director.
Students who have completed the qualifying exam
Students must form their dissertation committee before or within one quarter (three months) of passing their qualifying exam. Students are expected to complete all degree requirements within five years and students requiring more than 6 years will be evaluated for continuation in the program on a case-by-case basis.
Unsatisfactory progress indicators include:
- Falling below a 3.0 GPA
- Failing grades in any course
- Failure to complete courses for which an incomplete has been given
- Failure to find a chairperson of the dissertation committee
- Unsatisfactory research work (as reported by a dissertation advisor)
- Unprofessional conduct (as reported by a dissertation advisor, a course instructor, or other faculty)
- Failing to complete pre-exam requirements
- Failing the qualifying exam
- Disciplinary problems and other conduct and professionalism infractions that fall within the scope of UCSF’s Code of Conduct.
2. Process by which failing students will be notified and remediated.
Should the student be unable to fulfill the expectations according to the timeline outlined in the letter, the student will be subject to dismissal from the program. The process for in-depth review of a student’s eligibility for dismissal will follow the UCSF Divisional Procedure for Student Grievance in Academic Affairs, section 4.0 (http://senate.ucsf.edu/0-bylaws/stugr.html), and will be conducted by the following in-depth committees for each program:
- History of Health Sciences Executive Committee
The UCSF Senate’s Student Dismissal Policy can be found here: http://senate.ucsf.edu/0-bylaws/stugr.html.
3. Composition of the in-depth review committee, should one be necessary.
Students whose progress is unsatisfactory (according to one or more of the criteria listed above) will be notified and will meet with the dissertation committee chairperson and/or the program director to develop an individualized remediation plan to address the deficiencies. The meeting results in a memorandum of understanding that clearly outlines specific steps and associated deadlines that the student must fulfill in order to receive a satisfactory report. The report is then signed by the following parties: the student, the dissertation chair (if identified at this stage), and the program director. At this point, the report is filed in the student’s academic file within the program.